The cattellhorn fluidcrystallized intelligence theory distinguished between two types of intelligence, that is fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. A brief history of intelligence intelligence testing legere. The theory of intelligence that is most used in iq tests is the chc cattellhorncarroll. Theories and issues 23 the critics of gardners theory point out that it is difficult to see how all these seven intelligences meet his eight criteria e. Spearman gave his two factor theory of intelligence in 1904. Intelligence is the ability to learn, exercise judgment, and be imaginative. Psychologists have attempted to analyze these components, which has resulted in the development of different theories. Intelligence is a complex characteristic of cognition. Iqor intelligence quotientis the score most widely used to assess general intelligence or g, and typically measures a variety of skills from verbal to spatial. We will describe the developmental theories of intelligencethe information processbiological theories of intelligencecontrast the theories of intelligence 2.
Unit 11 intelligence a introduction to intelligence a. Among them is the theory of multiple intelligences, developed by howard gardner, ph. American psychologist, robert sternberg, made his name by proposing the triarchic theory of intelligence. The nature and origin of intelligence are elusive, and the value and accuracy of intelligence tests are often uncertain.
Increasingly, though, an understanding of brain function is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. Some theories emphasize social and economic justice. Every approach to thinking comes up with its own different perspective and assumptions, often contradicting at least one earlier theory. In gardners theory, each person possesses at least eight intelligences. Read this article to learn about the theories of intelligence. Howard gardner is an american psychologist who first proposed his theory in the 1980s. Intelligence, operationally defined, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment. Others, like freuds theories, have not held up so well and have been mostly replaced by new theories that better explain human development.
Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability, while others believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills, and talents. Characteristics of people with regard to their intellectual activities and abilities indicate that the intelligence cannot be a single function or capacity. Brody, in chapter 7, shows that general intelligence g is in research terms the only accurate predictor of performance. Mcgrew, phd ability at the apex of the hierarchy stratum iii. Notes on factor theories and cognitive theories of intelligence. Present arguments for and against considering intelligence as one general mental ability c. No single event in the history of mental testing has proved to be such momentous importance as his famous twofactor theory guilfordpsychometric methods. Human intelligence, mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate ones environment. While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects in psychology, there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes intelligence.
Sternberg generated his triarchic theory of intelligence, whereas gardner posits that intelligence is comprised of many factors. The ability to solve problems and to adapt to and learn from lifes everyday experiences. Originally these tests were not based on any theory of intelligence. These theories focus on human growth and development, psychological and social functioning, and social service delivery. It has been argued by some people that eq, the emotion quotient, is even more important than the somewhat less controversial intelligence quotient or iq. Contemporary theories of intelligence scott barry kaufman. Describe and compare gardners and sternbergs theories of intelligence d. What are the different theories of intelligence in.
Thurstone 18871955 offered a differing theory of intelligence. Ap psych intelligence, motivation, emotion flashcards. Still others focus on the importance of emotional intelligence. Intelligence by kashif salman made by kashif salman. The purpose of this hot topic is to identify theories that have significant potential for gifted education or. Questions about the structure of human intelligence.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Most gloaded abilities may learn best via lecture navigation, face recognition may learn best by moving what are your weaknesses. Is intelligence a single overall ability or is it several specific abilities. Learn theories of intelligence psychology with free interactive flashcards. The gfactor and the sfactor are two parts of spearmans twofactor theory of intelligence. We use your linkedin profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. The concept of intelligence is, in many ways, culturally bound. Despite the fact that theories of emotional intelligence only really came about in 1990, much has been written about this topic since then. Each theory has helped contribute to our knowledge base of the human mind and behavior. Applied history of psychologytheories on intelligence. Intelligence is a general factor that runs through all types of performance. Theories of intelligence in psychology verywell mind.
Raymond cattell and john horn crystallized intelligence fluid intelligence aging crystallized intelligence doesnt suffer fluid intelligence tends to decrease different aging effects. Among these eight intelligences, a person typically excels in some and falters in others. Some theories such as classical conditioning are still wellaccepted today. Choose from 500 different sets of theories of intelligence psychology flashcards on quizlet. Extrinsic motivation is something outside the person that energizes behavior. Theories of intelligence, learning, and motivation as a basis. Not all languages or cultural groups have a word equivalent to intelligence. Yet with the surge in new intelligence theories, many of these theories and their potential applications remain underexamined. With nearly 30 awardwinning faculty and almost 150 people in total, we are a vibrant community whose research continues our departments 100year tradition of studying the deeper mechanisms and processes underlying human. A brief history of intelligence some objected to the innateness bias, and suggested the term be replaced with general scholastic ability or general educational ability however, this did not catch on most theorists today posit a construct of intelligence that is independent of education intelligence testing defining intelligence. Many theories have been developed to explain what intelligence is and how it works. Iq intelligence quotient is a score on an intelligence test, based on population and age norms.
Results as shown in table 1, bif was negatively correlated with procrastination, whereas it was not associated with theories of intelligence. Theories of multiple intelligences gardners theory intelligence is best thought of as multiple abilities that come in packages. There is a survey of some of the major books that appeared since 2000, at different levels of expertise and from different points of view. Iq tests, which measure general cognitive ability, are derived from his theory of general intelligence. Gardners theory of multiple intelligences has been called a reframing of cognitive style or psychological differentiation theory, a concept first introduced by. The theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific modalities, rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. This overview of contributions to intelligence research covers the first decade of the twentyfirst century. Home of downtoearth, reliable, objective mental health symptoms and treatment information. Start studying ap psych intelligence, motivation, emotion. Researchers who study intelligence often argue about what iq tests really measure and whether or not einsteins theories and yo yo. The theories of intelligence have been developed epically by employing factor analysis intelligent of identify the structure of intelligence. According to thompson, mind consists of various independent powers. Historical development1 alfred binet charged by the minister of public instruction in paris to develop a method of detecting defective children who could then be given special instructionsalthough he toyed with the idea of developing a physiological measure, he ended up with a test he called aptitude for academic achievementthis test was designed to be. Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to understand and reason with nonverbal culturally free information.
It is the oldest theory regarding the nature of intelligence and flourished. In contrast to the two theories of intelligence weve just examined, gardners theory proposes nine different types of intelligence. Gardners early work in psychology and later in human cognition and human. Howard gardner proposed this model in his 1983 book frames of mind. What are the different theories of intelligence in psychology. They defined intelligence as the ability to do well in school. Robert sternberg 1985 has constructed a threepronged, or triarchic theory of intelligence. Intelligence is assimilation to the extent that it incorporates all the given data of experience within its framework. Emotional intelligence, or, what is commonly referred to as eq has been claimed to be the key to success in life. Destructive drives refer to such things as aggression, destruction, and death. The theories are grouped into four major theory types. Spearman was an english engineer and army officer who. Effect of individual differences in construal level on. To some extent, the debate over whether it is appropriate to call ei an intelligence is a rhetorical.
Theories of intelligence there are different theories about intelligence, none of which agreee with each other. In this video, i have discussed some important concepts of intelligence such as what is iq, mental age, iq formula, onefactor theory. Intelligence tests were developed for the practical function of selecting students for admission or placement in schools. The other type of instinctual drive is destructive. Psychometric theories derive from studying individual differences in test performance on cognitive tests. Individual differences in human intelligence are of interest to a wide range of psychologists and to many people outside the discipline. Examples of tasks that tap into fluid intelligence might include figure.
In the test of perceptual speed below, a stimulus is flashed and is then replaced by a masking image. Gardners theory, which has been refined for more than 30 years, is a more recent development among theories of intelligence. All theories are valueladen and come out of a sociohistorical context. Learn about the various theories of intelligence since many psychologists dont agree on a standard definition. The gap between psychometrics of intelligence testing and psychology. Psych central trusted mental health, depression, bipolar. Describe the four components of emotional intelligence e. Introduction to psychologyintelligence wikibooks, open.1199 1225 1363 164 1209 1151 987 412 192 985 848 1635 4 1154 888 548 845 951 659 969 797 1167 1070 1243 1249 396 1225 826 362 1451 376 1164